The CERN recently reported that the LHC , after analyzing some of its 70 billion collisions between protons probably had detected the presence of the Higgs boson. The truth is they are only rumors and expectations that have to prove in the future. But what is the Higgs boson? Why is called the God particle?. References: Higgs boson, God particle, quantum fermions, quarks, leptons, this standard model.
The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) accelerated to nearly light speed protons along a circular tube under vacuum of 27 kilometers in length. These protons collide them inside Chicago Criminal Lawyer giant detectors that record the results of these collisions, called ATLAS and CMS. These results are not more than other particles. This is achieved by Einstein’s equation E = mc2, is very easy, generated in the collision energy can become mass and therefore other elementary particles, which can be seen by the particle detectors. The higher energy particles much can be generated and therefore detected. It is this need that the LHC has cost about 3000 million euros, and one may wonder, is it necessary?. I tell them what is and each valued.
The Higgs particle is closely related to our understanding of how nature works. There are particles and forces, or if you prefer to matter and energy. Although all the same, this is the theoretical idea of what is known as the Standard Model of particles and forces.
The standard model of elementary particles must be understood within the context of quantum field theory. Summarize it very briefly, meanwhile can take a look at the initial image.
Imagine that everything that exists in our universe is made after only a few particles and a few strengths. It turns out that quantum field theory tells us that the forces (fields) are also determined by particles. To distinguish the control forces particles called bosons and fermions that generate the material with different physical characteristics that would be too long to explain here and now.
Consider first that forces exist. We have the force of gravity, electromagnetism, the strong force and weak force. See this blog entry here .
It must be said that of the 4 forces, gravity is no way to understand it within the standard model, the other another. What does this mean?. For the weak force and electromagnetic force are really the same force, the electroweak force and the theory that describes it is known as quantum electrodynamics (QED), this in turn is part of a theory that unifies the electroweak force with the strong force is what is known as quantum chromodynamics (QCD)
Here most of the forces, blue boxes are the initial figure. The electromagnetic force is transmitted by massless bosons called photons , the strong force for massless bosons called gluons and weak force called Z bosons with mass and W. Here begins the first problem, photons have no mass, no mass gluons instead the Z and W bosons if they have it, about 100 times the proton mass. Here’s the first problem.
If these forces are actually a single, because its so different bosons, a massless and others with mass. Why this difference?.
Another problem lies in the particles, green and red boxes of the initial figure. All the stuff that we are formed is generated with the first column, the quarks u, dui lawyer chicago d are the neutrons and protons, leptons are the electron and the electron neutrino.
But because there are more boxes right?, The next two columns are the same particles as the first column (the fast) but a greater mass com, the second column greater than the first and the third greater than the second. Why nature is repeated and only three times? And because this big difference between the mass of elementary particles is about 1011, the mass difference between an elephant and an ant. Another mystery to solve, is going to understand which is the mass. See this post .
One answer is the Higgs boson. In honor of Peter Higgs, a British physicist who along with Brout, Engler and Kibble, suggested its existence in 1964. As I said, in quantum field theory speak of particles, forces and fields is the same. We as the Higgs particle or Higgs field. The Higgs field gives mass to particles Z i W. If we light photons, the Higgs boson mass and we provide the inertia. Light and matter explained that at the moment … just a theory remains comprovada not.
But how does the mechanism to give mass Higss particles? o What is mass?. One answer would be that the mass of an object is the sum of the masses of the atoms making up the object. A train has more mass than a fly because it contains more atoms. But this does not explain anything, where does the mass of the atoms?. In short, hence the mass of protons, neutrons, electrons , etc … the answer is the Higgs particle. So someone called God particle, thus creating the matter in the universe had to first create the Higgs particle.
Ja is to be extending this post, but is necessary to understand the Higgs mechanism is not the only cause of mass. Protons and neutrons are made up of quarks, they move and are held together by gluons of the strong force. Therefore acquire kinetic energy which is transformed into mass by Einstein’s equation E = mc2, so part of our body follows the movement of these quarks. In addition we purchase these quark mass and all elementary particles interacting with the Higg field.
And because the Higgs boson interacts with Z i W bosons of the weak force and not with photons and gluons?. The answer is already more complicated to explain without resorting to concepts inherent in the quantum field theory.
The Higgs field has the property that does not vanish into the void, is present throughout the universe. Recall that a quantum field and common sense here does not work. As the electromagnetic field is also a quantum field associated with a boson, the photon, which gives us light. It is as mysterious as the Higgs boson, but we’re used to seeing the light, but do not see individual photons and it seems completely normal. Imagine that we were blind, you would understand that is light. The same goes for the Higgs boson, we notice with the mass and inertia of our own body, but we see no Higgs particles.
But because it is slow i W Z bosons of the weak force bosons and strong and electromagnetic force. A mystery to solve it tries to decipher the LHC.
Cannabis: Legalize drugs to stop. So say world leaders
Cannabis sativa is a plant that has historically served in the pharmacopoeia of the countries of Asia and the Mediterranean in particular. Was penalized from the twentieth century. Here we published 10 myths about cannabis that are only medioverdades but discredits
Speaking of cannabis is to turn the green light to the controversy. However, we write these lines to generate controversy, but on rational and scientific, with discretion and thoroughness, as anyone in the street hears and responds to the ear.
Now, the myths of cannabis sativa, marijuana or just joint, vulgar language, up to infinity, depending on who enter them. The “cannabis sativa” drug legal in some places, illegal in others, in the process of legalization and outlawed in others, say their status does not affect its composition. Consensus is not and never will be total respect to their goodness or badness or concerning the nature of cannabis. Ten common myths about cannabis that may serve to clarify the picture.
What is certain is that cannabis is lethal for children 6 to 14 years, is an age in which the nervous system is forming and its brain connections are still forming and in case of colliding with primary education is certain all how bad it is said of the joint. This means that if you decriminalize cannabis has to be a separate section for children. Do not criminalize but to act preemptively. And in all cases need extensive information on the advantages and disadvantages of cannabis sativa that is lacking in many cases.
1. The cannabis you do lose your memory
The alleged reduction in the logic and intelligence is not just a popular belief, an urban legend like any other. Laboratory tests have shown that what actually happens is that cannabis does affect short-term memory, but only for the duration of intoxication. There is evidence that long-term affects. Can affect more on that aspect to minors.
2. The cannabis affects the lungs more than smoking
In fact, those who use cannabis do not inhale the huge amount of toxic additives in cigarettes, introducing each denver injury lawyer time in greater quantity and variety, the large and famous brands, to see lower consumption. Ultimately that inhaled cannabis is always a natural martial arts denver substance that does not change at the discretion of a chemical or a board of directors. If someone sees a fiddle soon know. In a snuff factory nobody has ever seen anything. Furthermore, the trend indicates that cannabis users also smoke cigarettes, snuff tend to smoke less frequently than the normal one.
3. The cannabis addictive
There is nothing in marijuana-itself-to generate physical dependence, addiction is misunderstood here and go another way. In fact it is hard to leave smoking cannabis, so there is a physiological tendency, habit of smoking “something” to leave “something” that falls there. But if we compare the difficulty free auto insurance quotes between leaving or smoking cannabis, it is well known, and the statistics prove, that quitting smoking is the greatest heroism of smokers veterans, even at the risk of cancer.
4. The cannabis makes its way to other drugs
In itself this is not true. This is probably common elsewhere widely used against cannabis. Some people start by snorting a line of cocaine, because it is fashionable in a business or office or at a wedding or hostess club. Some people are introduced with a spliff in a school or workshop. That the powerful drug users have started with cannabis is a reality, but you can play with statistics, or to places that he auto transport smoked the first joint because of all the students would do cocaine addicts assumptions which is an inaccuracy . If we reverse the angle and the statistics of cannabis smokers, we see that are the least are the ones who end up using hard drugs such as LSD or heroin.
5. The cannabis kills neurons
This myth is bivalent. This is partly true and partly not. While an individual consumer may suffer paranoia, delusions of persecution or fear, this is an abnormal situation. Ordinary consumers do not have these consequences associated with neuronal death. You have to see if the consumer suffers from a pathology associated with schizophrenia, psychosis or some persecution. Also have heard that a couple of whiskeys kill a few million neurons, Who knows?
6. The cannabis causes apathy and unwillingness
Another reality though half. Drug abuse always end in reluctance and lack of motivation, but in the case of cannabis this is relative. The moderate use of cannabis does not cause these states and in fact, statistics show that in terms of skills could not be distinguished a priori who smokes and who does not. Unless the smoker is a baby of five to ten years.
7. Cannabis has long-term toxic effects
Cannabis is housed in the adipose tissue of the person, which has led to this media myth. However, these residues have no effect cannabis psychoactive in the individual, and also pose no harm to the brain, tissues, or any other body part.
8. Cannabis is scientifically proven to be harmful
There is no research that has looked upon cannabis as a substance harmful integrally. Of course, if some aspects of the substance is harmful, others can not. It is inferred that cannabis is harmful components and others do not. But cannabis is not harmful integrally.
9. Cannabis is more potent today than before
Thus, in the abstract, this is not true, no lie. It depends on who supplied and to be seen if he has added “extrangis” something to engage the consumer more. The plant “cannabis sativa” is or must be the same as before, everywhere. Just this looks like a message Denver Divorce Lawyer given by some drug dealers who have been led to believe this fact to consumers.
10. The way cannabis is a crime
This itself is a social view that has nothing to do with marijuana itself. It is true that in the circles of drug crime is the bread, but this does not mean that cannabis is a gateway to crime. In fact, science has proven that cannabis users tend to have no violent or aggressive behavior or due to the relaxing effects of the drug.
Smoking is legal for the good of the big multinational brands. The cannabis is illegal but a natural plant that has psychotropic effects
Kofi Annan, Fernando Cardoso and Mario Vargas Llosa support a report to the UN regular use of marijuana and fight against drug trafficking.
The fight against drugs “has failed” and reforms are needed “urgent” to change the situation, including ending the criminalization of consumers and legalize cannabis, according to a report by the Global Drug Policy, which integrate several former Latin American presidents.
“The global fight against drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world,” says the committee in a document to be presented Thursday in New York in the presence of former Brazilian president Fernando Henrique Cardoso.
“Fifty years after the signing of the UN Convention on drugs and 40 years after the President (Richard) Nixon launched anti-drug war the U.S. government, fundamental reforms are urgently needed in national and global control of drugs, “says the report.
The Global Drug Policy Committee is comprised of world leaders such as former UN secretary general, Kofi Annan, and former Presidents Cardoso, Cesar Gaviria (Colombia) and Ernesto Zedillo Bankruptcy (Mexico).
Among its members are also intellectuals and writers such as Mexico’s Carlos Fuentes and Peru’s Mario Vargas Llosa.
In his report, recommended several tracks leading out of the current situation in which “the global scale of illegal drug markets, mostly controlled by organized crime, has increased dramatically.”
First, seek to “end the criminalization, marginalization and stigmatization of people who use drugs but do not cause harm to others” priority approach “more human” to see addicts as patients and not criminals.
“Decriminalization custom t shirts initiatives do not result in a significant increase in drug use,” says the report, citing the examples in this sense of Portugal, the Netherlands and a province of Australia.
A second idea is to “encourage governments experimenting with models of legal regulation of drugs (especially cannabis) to undermine the power of organized crime Phen375 Review and safeguard the health and safety of its citizens.”
Also, raise “ensure the availability of a variety of treatment modalities.”
“Let’s start treating drug addiction as a health issue, reducing demand for drugs through education initiatives through legal and regulating cannabis rather than criminalize” summarized Fernando Henrique Cardoso, said in a statement.
According to UN figures, the consumption of opiates increased 35, 5% between 1998 and 2008, 27% cocaine and cannabis by 8, 5%.
In the specific case of Latin America, Cesar Gaviria said you can not “continue to ignore the extent to which violence, crime and drug-related corruption in Latin America are the result of failure of drug policies.”
“It’s time to break the taboo chiropractic marketing of discussing all drug policy options, including alternatives to drug prohibition,” he said.
The World Committee on Drug Policy aims to “bring an informed discussion at international level and based on scientific data on human ways and effective in reducing the harm caused by drugs to individuals and societies.”
His works recapture the experience of the Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy, also made by Cardoso, Gaviria and Zedillo, who had reviewed the drug war in the region and open a public debate on the issue.
Tidal gravity shift
The gravity through links. In the drawing of Earth’s gravitational simulation with the Moon, shows that the effect of Chrome Wire Shelving gravity line approaches with respect to the influence of the moon. A more distant from the gravitational field, we have more attractive force
Tides gravitational shift.
The gravity through links.
Newton explained how the action of gravity, but not the origin and composition. The Law of Universal Gravitation Newton indicates that gravity is the attraction experienced by objects with mass. This action is directly proportional to the product of the masses of each, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance that separates them. Gravity is considered a key action in relation to the masses and the actions that hold the elements that make up matter.
The gravity with electromagnetism are considered fundamental actions of Nature, the two act over long distances. However, unlike electromagnetism, gravity is cumulative. The action of gravity can not be reflected or detained or smoothed. Another feature of gravity is that it never changes sign. The gravity action is presented as more interesting to consider in relation to the matter. In the case of the Earth, gravity presses cumulatively their stuff from outer space toward its center.
Tides gravitational shift.
In the drawing of Earth’s gravitational simulation with the Moon, shows that the effect of gravity line approaches with respect to the influence of the moon. A more distant from the gravitational field, we have more attractive force. Both in direction of the Moon, as on the contrary, there is the distance cone gravitational field decreases, and therefore the power of water pressure is also lower.
The Earth rotates about its central axis in the rotation. But we on the other hand, that the Earth with the Moon form a functioning unit gravity, with a common axis Plastic Containers (Earth-Moon) Bins on the equivalent of its mass center. As you turn the earth in relation to the moon, the gravitational center is moved, describing a circle around the earth’s axis.
In this gravitational displacement with reference to the center of rotation of the Earth, we see that significantly affects the water, creating elevations in the oceans on both the direction of the moon as on the opposite side. This is what generates the waters rise and fall twice a day.